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TOEFL COURSES --> Developing iBT TOEFL -->Writing Section
Integrated Writing

For this task, you will read a passage about an academic topic and you will listen to a lecture about the same topic. You may take notes while you read and listen.
Then you will write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship be-tween the lecture you heard and the reading passage. Try to answer the question as completely as possible using information from the reading passage and the lecture.
The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. You may refer to the reading passage again when you write. You may use your notes to help you answer the question.
Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on the completeness and accuracy of the content.
You should allow 3 minutes to read the passage. Then listen to the lecture. Then allow 20 minutes to plan and write your response.
Trends in worldwide energy use point up an urgent need to expedite the development of technology that can wean the world from fossil fuels. Many experts contend that the recent increases in the price of oil will not be followed, as in the past, by an easing off after a year or two. Even if that were not the case, the world would have to be concerned about inevitable constraints on supply.
Gasoline and diesel engines in motor vehicles consume the vast majority of fossil fuel used outside power generation. The only technology currently in the pipeline for rescuing transportation from a very serious oil crunch is that of vehicles operating with hydrogen fuel-cell engines.
Private industry long a mere bystander in the development of the hydrogen economy, is now leading the way to develop affordable and environmentally desirable hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. The United States government is spending about $100 million per year for research on hydrogen vehicles and hydrogen-storage technology. Major automobile manufactures claim they will have cost-effective hydrogen cars by 2015. These cars, it should be noted, will produce no greenhouse gases. Like any new fuel technology, hydrogen will require infrastructure.
Plants to generate usable hydrogen, pipelines to move it, and depots in which to store it, must be put in place. Stations for refilling a vehicle's hydrogen tank must be as common as ordinary gas stations before many consumers will venture onto the open road with hydrogen cars, yet this is not an unrealistic scenario. Most probably, existing oil and gasoline infrastructure can be affordably —and incrementally—converted to hydrogen infrastructure.

Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they contradict points made in the reading.
Count: 0 word(s)

The reading argues that we face a global problem of climate change that is caused by greenhouse gases and that the most practical solution to that problem is to develop hydrogen fuel-cell cars. However, the lecturer challenges the claims of the text that hydrogen cars offer the best solution. First, he argues that it will take too long for hydrogen cars to make a difference. In his view, the money that could be invested in hydrogen cars would be better spent on developing more efficient hybrid cars that use existing technology and promise immediate results. Second, the professor argues that building a necessary hydrogen infrastructure will cost much more than the text suggests. He cites a study that estimates it would cost $500 billion to create a limited infrastructure. Moreover, he argues it will cost a lot and create more greenhouse gases to produce hydrogen for cars. He adds that the text's claim that hydrogen cars release no greenhouse gases is therefore misleading.

Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.
M: So, often in science, proponents of new technologies get excited and overlook other options. Take the problem of the hydrogen fuel-cell car as a solution to the problems associated with climate change. It is now generally accepted that burning oil and other fossil fuels causes gases to be released into the atmosphere . . . cars and other vehicles are major producers of greenhouse gases. And, uh, we also know that as these gases build up, they act like a greenhouse, uh, raising the Earth's temperature.
Changes in the climate have already resulted in the melting of glaciers in Greenland, and, umm, that means we may witness a rise in sea level. You may have heard about hydrogen fuel-cell technology as a solution to this problem. However, you should know, well, proponents overemphasize the benefits of this technology. In fact, there are better ways to approach the problem of climate change that will bring more immediate benefits and are less costly. First, let's look at the problems with hydrogen fuel-cell technology. Supporters estimate that with investment now, industry could have hydrogen cars on the road in ten or fifteen years. Well, that's too long if you are talking about making an impact in reducing green house gases. It is a misdirection of resources. We need to cut greenhouse gases quickly, and, uh, this can be done by increasing fuel efficiency now. For example, industry already is producing hybrid gasoline-electric cars. We have them already . . . and, um, with more support from government and the public, they could be the standard. Presently, these cars give off thirty to fifty percent less greenhouse gas than gasoline-only vehicles . . . but, here, listen to this, with advances in the technology, a new generation of hybrids will run on ethanol gasoline blends that cut greenhouse gas emissions down to one tenth of what hybrids today produce. The change is huge and it can happen quickly! If you are going to invest in research and development, you'll get more for your money with ethanol-blend hybrids, and the results for the environment will come sooner.
Secondly, supporters of the hydrogen car are too optimistic about the development of a supporting infrastructure. They wildly underestimate the costs. An important study showed that it would cost over $500 billion to create a hydrogen infrastructure for just forty percent of light vehicles . . . and that's assuming more cars don't end up on the road. OK, so this gets worse, another study showed that it would cost $20 billion to supply just two percent of the cars with hydrogen by 2020 . . . that's after you paid for the infrastructure. Besides, where does the hydrogen come from? It has to be made by burning fossil fuels. So while supporters may say hydrogen burns clean in your car, they are telling only half the story. A lot of greenhouse gases are created to make that hydrogen for your car. There are also costs associated with adopting hybrids and using more ethanol, um, ethanol requires special storage and delivery, that costs money, too, but current estimates are much lower than those for hydrogen.

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