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SECTION TEST - GENERAL TRAINING READING
(Time: 60 minutes)
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Passage 1

 

The following table gives information about immunisation.

 
IMMUNISATION CALENDAR
AGE
DISEASE
VACCINE
2 months
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
DTPw*
 
Poliomyelitis
OPV-Sabin vaccine
 
Hib
Hib vaccine (HbOC or PRP-OMP)**
4 months
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
DTPw*
 
Poliomyelitis
OPV-Sabin vaccine
 
Hib
Hib vaccine (HbOC or PRP-OMP)**
6 months
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
DTPw*
 
Poliomyelitis
OPV-Sabin vaccine
 
Hib (HbOC schedule only)
Hib vaccine (HbOC)
12 months
Measles, Mumps, Rubella
MMR
 
Hib (PRP-OMP schedule only)
Hib vaccine (PRP-OMP)
18 months
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis,
DTPa or DTPw
 
Hib (HbOC schedule only)
Hib vaccine (HbOC)
Prior to school—4-5 years (+)
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
DTPa or DTPw
 
Poliomyelitis
OPV-Sabin vaccine
 
(+) Attendance for these booster injections is essential.
* DTP is the abbreviation for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, commonly referred to by the trade name “Triple Antigen”
** Abbreviations for haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccines: HbOC is “HibTITER”; PRP-OMP is “PedvaxHIB”. HbOC (‘HibTITER’) is given at two, four, six and 18 months. PRP-OMP (PedvaxHIB) is given at two, four and 12 months.

 


Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS taken from the table, answer the following questions.


1.
HibTITER Triple Antigen


What is a common name for the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis combination vaccine?  


What does the abbreviation HbOC stand for?  



Answer the questions by choosing the correct answer. 


1. Which of the following would be an appropriate schedule for Type b influenza?
A. 2,4 and 6 months
B. 2,4,6 and 18 months
C. 2,4,8 and 12 months
D. 4,6 and 12 months
Explain:
2,4,6 and 18 months. This answer is also found in the same section as the answer to question 2. There are two possible schedules given for Type b influenza: HbOC at 2,4,6 and 18 months or PRP-OMP at 2,4 and 12 months. A, C and D do not describe either of these schedules.


2. The symbol (+) indicates
A. the information has been adapted from The Australian Immunisation Handbook
B. pre-school children
C. booster injections are necessary
D. abbreviations for haemophilus influenzae
Explain:
booster injections are necessary. Symbols such as t or an * refer you to an explanatory note, usually found at the bottom of the page or below a chart or table. They do not refer you to the information within the text. .

 

Questions and Answers about Immunisation

 
(A) For polio, Sabin oral vaccine is given by mouth-a few drops of pleasantly flavoured syrup on a spoon. For diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough a combined vaccine (triple antigen) is given by injection-a quick prick from the needle, over in a few seconds. Measles and rubella vaccine are also given by injection.
(B) There are sometimes mild side effects to the triple antigen vaccine. These may include some local redness, tenderness and swelling at the site of the injection during the 48-hour period which follows it. There may also be slight nausea, fretfulness and feverishness. Major reactions are extremely rare.
Possible reactions to measles immunisation include fever, rash and a stuffy nose about 5-12 days after the injection. These symptoms last about 2-3 days, do not cause much discomfort and normally do not require treatment. The child is not infective to others.
(C) A full course of immunisation will still give protection when completed, even if it does not strictly follow the Health Commission's recommended schedule.
(D) Although two months is the recommended starting age, immunisation will be equally effective if commenced in older children. The early start is advised because whooping cough is most serious in young babies. Immunisation can still ensure protection for children over eight years and adults, provided the vaccine appropriate to their age is used.
(E) If a child has diarrhoea, Sabin oral vaccine should not be given. If a child vomits within two hours of taking Sabin oral vaccine, the dose should be repeated.
Before you have your child immunised, please tell the doctor if your child:
• Is suffering from any sickness or allergy;
• Has had a severe reaction to a previous immunisation such as persistent screaming or persistent vomiting, or collapse, or convulsions, or fever exceeding 29.5°C;
• Has ever had fits, or if other members of the family have had an illness of the nervous system or convulsions;
• Has had a blood transfusion or an injection of gamma globulin in the last three months;
• Is under treatment with a cortisone-like drug.
(F) For some children the Hepatitis B vaccine may also be recommended. Please consult your doctor for advice.
(G)
• Your doctor, or
• Your local council, or
• Community Health Centres in some Health Regions
 

 

The text about immunisation gives the answers to questions commonly asked by parents.

There are 7 sections A-G. Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list below. NB: There are more headings than sections so you will not use all of them. You may use any of the headings more than once.


1. Section A
A. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
B. Why should children be immunised?
C. What if the course is interrupted?
D. Who should be immunised?
E. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
F. How is immunisation done?
G. What if the child is older?
H. Special note
I. Where to go for immunisation?
G. How to treat reactions to immunisation
Explain:
Section A describes how immunisation is done, the process.


2. Section B
A. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
B. Special note
C. What if the course is interrupted?
D. How to treat reactions to immunisation
E. What if the child is older?
F. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
G. Why should children be immunised?
H. How is immunisation done?
I. Who should be immunised?
G. Where to go for immunisation?
Explain:
Section B describes some possible side effects or reactions to vaccines.


3. Section C
A. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
B. Why should children be immunised?
C. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
D. Special note
E. Where to go for immunisation?
F. What if the course is interrupted?
G. What if the child is older?
H. How to treat reactions to immunisation
I. How is immunisation done?
G. Who should be immunised?
Explain:
Section C tells you that an interruption to the normal schedule will not reduce the effectiveness of the vaccination.


4. Section D
A. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
B. Who should be immunised?
C. Why should children be immunised?
D. How to treat reactions to immunisation
E. What if the course is interrupted?
F. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
G. What if the child is older?
H. Where to go for immunisation?
I. Special note
G. How is immunisation done?
Explain:
Section D tells you that ‘immunisation will be equally effective if commenced in older children.'


5. Section E
A. What if the course is interrupted?
B. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
C. Special note
D. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
E. What if the child is older?
F. Who should be immunised?
G. Where to go for immunisation?
H. How to treat reactions to immunisation
I. How is immunisation done?
G. Why should children be immunised?
Explain:
Section E tells you what information the doctor needs before giving immunisation-in other words, the precautions necessary.


6. Section G
A. Are there any special precautions to take when immunising?
B. What if the child is older?
C. Where to go for immunisation?
D. How to treat reactions to immunisation
E. How is immunisation done?
F. Why should children be immunised?
G. What if the course is interrupted?
H. Special note
I. Will baby have a reaction to the injection?
G. Who should be immunised?
Explain:
Section G tells you where to go for immunisation.

Choose the appropriate answer. 


1. The vaccine for which illness comes in the form of a syrup?
A. tetanus
B. diphtheria
C. measles
D. poliomyelitis
Explain:
This answer is found in the first sentence. The rest of this paragraph tells you that tetanus, diphtheria and measles vaccines are all given by injection.


2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a possible side effect of the DTP vaccine?
A. rash
B. nausea
C. fever
D. redness
Explain:
This instruction requires you to choose a possible side effect of the DTP vaccine (the triple antigen vaccine) NOT given in the passage. That means three of the four answers, redness, nausea and fever, ARE given in section B, which deals with reactions to vaccines.
Passage 2

 Job Interview Success

 

When you apply for a job, the impression you create during the interview is just as important as the skills and background you bring to the table. The following suggestions will help you prepare for a successful interview.
 
Before You Leave Home
Dress appropriately. This means the attire you choose should be the same as what you would wear for work once you are hired. Conservative colors2 and styles always convey a more trustworthy image.
 
Rehearse the interview at home. Think of questions that you will probably be asked, and prepare answers for them. This will help you be calm when you are at the actual interview.
 
Don’t be late for your interview. The best way to avoid this problem is to decide ahead of time how you want to get there. If by bus or subway, check the schedules the day before. If by car, plan your route carefully and figure out how long it will take. Careful planning will ensure that you will make a good impression by arriving on time.
 
During the Interview
Speak clearly. Look the interviewer in the eye when speaking and use clear, confident tones. Do not speak too quickly or nervously. Rather, pronounce your words carefully and pause when searching for ideas. Speaking with a firm, clear voice is one of the best ways to give an impression of self-assurance.
 
Ask questions. Do not be afraid to do this. It will not make you appear unprepared or stupid. On the contrary, asking the right questions shows that you are knowledgeable about the company and conveys the impression that you are interested and enthusiastic.

 Complete the sentences below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.


1.
on time the right questions/question voice calm conservative the schedule/the schedules


Wearing  clothes makes a better impression during the job interview.

Practice answering questions ahead of time so that you feel   during the interview.

If traveling to the interview by bus, make sure you know  ahead of time.

You will be   for the interview if you plan your trip beforehand.

Use your   to convey an attitude of confidence.

Show what you know by asking  



 Five Reasons Your Business Needs a Website

 

All businesses, large or small, need a website. Here are several reasons a website can help a company of any size improve its business.
A
A website is the most important tool a business has for maintaining contact with customers. The website gives customers a way to know what services or products you sell and how to contact you. By offering an e-newsletter sign-up on your website, customers can stay informed about events related to your business and your products, and you save on printing costs. A link to your blog keeps customers up-to-date on what is happening with your business, and keeps them coming back.
B
A website allows you to expand your customer base beyond your immediate community, and even to other countries. Anyone in the world can have access to your services and products through your website, at no extra cost.
C
No matter what the size of your business, it is not hard to afford a website. It is easy to set up, and it does not have to break your budget. There are templates available if you want to create a website yourself. Or, you can hire a Web designer for a more professional look. Depending on what you need, using the services of a professional does not necessarily cost huge amounts of money. The hosting fees you pay to keep your website up and running are minimal.
D
You can save on expenses by keeping your website simple. Even just a few pages can be enough to provide your customers with the necessary information to keep them interested in what your business has to offer. A large website with lots of pages is not always necessary. The most essential facts to include in any website—your business name and location, your products, and your contact information—can be contained on just one page.
E
Your website can be a place for your customers to buy your products. You may still do most of your selling at your physical place of business, but the website is another opportunity to sell, and you can reach more customers this way, too.

 The text contains five sections, A—E. In which section can information about the following be found? You may use any option more than once.


1. finding international customers
A. section D
B. section E
C. section B
D. section A
E. section C
Explain:


2. the cost of maintaining a website
A. section B
B. section E
C. section D
D. section A
E. section C
Explain:


3. ways to communicate with customers
A. section B
B. section A
C. section C
D. section D
E. section E
Explain:


4. selling your products online
A. section B
B. section C
C. section A
D. section D
E. section E
Explain:


5. the size of your website
A. section D
B. section B
C. section A
D. section E
E. section C
Explain:


6. website design
A. section C
B. section B
C. section D
D. section A
E. section E
Explain:


7. the most important information to include
A. section E
B. section A
C. section D
D. section B
E. section C
Explain:
Passage 3

THE IRON BRIDGE

 
The Iron Bridge was the first of its kind in Europe and is universally recognised as a symbol of the Industrial Revolution.
 
(A) The Iron Bridge crosses the River Severn in Coalbrookdale, in the west of England. It was the first cast-iron bridge to be successfully erected, and the first large cast-iron structure of the industrial age in Europe, although the Chinese were expert iron-casters many centuries earlier.
 
(B) Rivers used to be the equivalent of today’s motorways, in that they were extensively used for transportation. The River Severn, which starts its life on the Welsh mountains and eventually enters the sea between Cardiff and Bristol, is the longest navigable river in Britain. It was ideal for transportation purposes, and special boats were built to navigate the waters. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the Severn was one of the busiest rivers in Europe. Local goods, including coal, iron products, wool, grain and cider, were sent by river. Among the goods coming upstream were luxuries such as sugar, tea, coffee and wine. In places, the riverbanks were lined with wharves and the river was often crowded with boats loading or unloading.
 
(C) In 1638, Basil Brooke patented a steel-making process and built a furnace at Coalbrookdale. This later became the property of Abraham Darby (referred to as Abraham Darby I to distinguish him from his son and grandson of the same name). After serving an apprenticeship in Birmingham, Darby had started a business in Bristol, but he moved to Coalbrookdale in 1710 with an idea that coke derived from coal could provide a more economical alternative to charcoal as a fuel for ironmaking. This led to cheaper, more efficient ironmaking from the abundant supplies of coal, iron and limestone in the area.
 
(D) His son, Abraham Darby II, pioneered the manufacture of cast iron, and had the idea of building a bridge over the Severn, as ferrying stores of all kinds across the river, particularly the large quantities of fuel for the furnaces at Coalbrookdale and other surrounding ironworks, involved considerable expense and delay. However, it was his son Abraham Darby III (born in 1750) who, in 1775, organised a meeting to plan the building of a bridge. This was designed by a local architect, Thomas Pritchard, who had the idea of constructing it of iron.
 
(E) Sections were cast during the winter of 1778-9 for a 7-metre-wide bridge with a span of 31 metres, 12 metres above the river. Construction took three months during the summer of 1779, and remarkably, nobody was injured during the construction process - a feat almost unheard of even in modern major civil engineering projects. Work on the approach roads continued for another two years, and the bridge was opened to traffic in 1781. Abraham Darby III funded the bridge by commissioning paintings and engravings, but he lost a lot on the project, which had cost nearly double the estimate, and he died leaving massive debts in 1789, aged only 39. The district did not flourish for much longer, and during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries factories closed down. Since 1934 the bridge has been open only to pedestrians. Universally recognised as the symbol of the Industrial Revolution, the Iron Bridge now stands at the heart of the Ironbridge Gorge World Heritage Site.
 
(F) It has always been a mystery how the bridge was built. Despite its pioneering technology, no eye-witness accounts are known which describe the iron bridge being erected - and certainly no plans have survived. However, recent discoveries, research and experiments have shed new light on exactly how it was built, challenging the assumptions of recent decades. In 1997 a small watercolour sketch by Elias Martin came to light in the Swedish capital, Stockholm. Although there is a wealth of early views of the bridge by numerous artists, this is the only one which actually shows it under construction.
 
(G) Up until recently it had been assumed that the bridge had been built from both banks, with the inner supports tilted across the river. This would have allowed river traffic to continue unimpeded during construction. But the picture clearly shows sections of the bridge being raised from a barge in the river. It contradicted everything historians had assumed about the bridge, and it was even considered that the picture could have been a fake as no other had come to light. So in 2001 a half-scale model of the bridge was built, in order to see if it could have been constructed in the way depicted in the watercolour. Meanwhile, a detailed archaeological, historical and photographic survey was done by the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, along with a 3D CAD (computer-aided design) model by English Heritage.
 
(H) The results tell us a lot more about how the bridge was built. We now know that all the large castings were made individually as they are all slightly different. The bridge wasn’t welded or bolted together as metal bridges are these days. Instead it was fitted together using a complex system of joints normally used for wood - but this was the traditional way in which iron structures were joined at the time. The construction of the model proved that the painting shows a very realistic method of constructing the bridge that could work and was in all probability the method used.
 
(I) Now only one mystery remains in the Iron Bridge story. The Swedish watercolour sketch had apparently been torn from a book which would have contained similar sketches. It had been drawn by a Swedish artist who lived in London for 12 years and travelled Britain drawing what he saw. Nobody knows what has happened to the rest of the book, but perhaps the other sketches still exist somewhere. If they are ever found they could provide further valuable evidence of how the Iron Bridge was constructed.


Answer the questions below.
Choose ONE NUMBER ONLY from the text for each answer.

1.
2001 1638 1934 1781


When was the furnace bought by Darby originally constructed?  

When were the roads leading to the bridge completed?  

When was the bridge closed to traffic?  

When was a model of the bridge built?  



Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?
TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN       if there is no information on this

1. There is no written evidence of how the original bridge was constructed.
A. True
B. Not given
C. False
Explain:


2. The painting by Elias Martin is the only one of the bridge when it was new.
A. True
B. Not given
C. False
Explain:


3. The painting shows that the bridge was constructed from the two banks.
A. Not given
B. True
C. False
Explain:


4. The original bridge and the model took equally long to construct.
A. Not given
B. True
C. False
Explain:


5. Elias Martin is thought to have made other paintings of the bridge.
A. Not given
B. False
C. True
Explain:

The text has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Which paragraph of the text contains the following information?

1. why a bridge was required across the River Severn
A. Paragraph C
B. Paragraph E
C. Paragraph G
D. Paragraph F
E. Paragraph I
F. Paragraph B
G. Paragraph A
H. Paragraph D
I. Paragraph H
Explain:


2. a method used to raise money for the bridge
A. Paragraph H
B. Paragraph D
C. Paragraph F
D. Paragraph C
E. Paragraph B
F. Paragraph I
G. Paragraph G
H. Paragraph A
I. Paragraph E
Explain:


3. why Coalbrookdale became attractive to iron makers
A. Paragraph D
B. Paragraph H
C. Paragraph G
D. Paragraph F
E. Paragraph I
F. Paragraph A
G. Paragraph C
H. Paragraph E
I. Paragraph B
Explain:


4. how the sections of the bridge were connected to each other
A. Paragraph H
B. Paragraph B
C. Paragraph D
D. Paragraph E
E. Paragraph I
F. Paragraph C
G. Paragraph F
H. Paragraph G
I. Paragraph A
Explain:
Score: 0/10
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