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MODEL TEST - ACADEMIC IELTS
(Time: 90 minutes)
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Section 1

Script:

JOAN: Right... let’s try and get it sorted out today so we don’t have it hanging over us. OK?

PETER: Good idea. I’ll take notes.
JOAN:  First thing ... numbers... have we got anything definite?
PETER: Well... I’ve been working it out and I think 40 to 43.
JOAN:  Shall we put 45 to be on the safe side?      
PETER: Yep, fine.
JOAN:  Dates ... well. That’s straightforward.
PETER: The last working day before Christmas ... which is ...
JOAN:  . .. which is December the 21st.
PETER: .. . which is going to be pretty difficult to book at Christmas so we’d better think of two or three places just to be on the safe side.
JOAN:  Well, last year’s was hopeless.
PETER: The Red Lion, wasn’t it?
JOAN:  Yep. We ought to go for something more expensive, cos you ...
PETER: ... you gets what you pay for.
JOAN:  That new Indian restaurant in Wetherfield is supposed to be excellent... the Rajdoot.         
PETER: How do you spell that?
JOAN:  R-A-J-D-O-O-T.
PETER: But it’s bound to be packed.
JOAN:  Well, let’s put that down as the first choice and have some back-ups. What about the Park View Hotel as a second choice?
PETER: Yes, that’s always reliable. Park View Hotel...
JOAN:  And the London Arms in case.         
PETER: London Arms ...
JOAN:  I’ll call them now if you want.
PETER: No. I’ll do it, Joan. You’re really busy. Have you got the numbers?
JOAN:  Not for the Rajdoot, but... right... Park View Hotel: 777192 and ... London Arms:          208657.
PETER: Great. Before I ring, we’d better just make sure they’re within the price range.
JOAN:  Up to £15 a head?
PETER: I think you’ll find some people won’t be able to go that high.
JOAN:  Well, you can’t get anything decent under £10.
PETER: OK. We’ll say £12?
JOAN:  OK.
PETER: And we’d better make sure there’s good vegetarian food.
JOAN:  And a non-smoking section! You know what the boss is like.         
PETER: Don’t remind me. I’ll let you know as soon as I get anything... Good news. I found Rajdoot’s number straight away and they can fit us in. Their Christmas menu sounds great.
JOAN: What is it?
PETER: French onion soup or fruit juice.
JOAN: Uh-huh.
peter: Roast dinner or lentil curry ... sounds ordinary but my friend said it was really tasty.
JOAN: Umm ... lentil curry ... that’s unusual.
PETER: Then for dessert there’s traditional plum pudding or apple pie, plus coffee.
JOAN: That sounds really good for £12. Did you book it?
PETER: Well, I said I’d check with the staff first. But they did say they’d hold the booking until next Wednesday anyway. Oh, and if we go ahead, they’d like a £50 deposit.
JOAN:  50 is normal... that’s fine.
PETER: And they want a letter.
JOAN:  Right... to confirm.
PETER: And they say with such large numbers we have to choose the menu in advance.  
JOAN:  That won’t be a problem. I’ll put up a notice with details of the restaurant and the menu. When did you say they wanted confirmation by?
PETER: It was ... let’s see ... the 4th of November.  
JOAN:  Where do you think I should put up the notice? Where everyone’s guaranteed to see it.
PETER: On the cafe noticeboard I should think.
JOAN:  Hardly anyone looks at that.
PETER: Well, the Newsletter is probably your best bet.       
JOAN:  Good idea. I’ll go and do that now.

Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
 
NOTES – Christmas Dinner
Example
Number to book for:
Answer
45
Date of dinner:
21 December
Choices for venue:
First choice
(1)……………
Tel. number: not known
Second choice
(2)……………
Tel. number: 777192
Third choice
(3)……………
Tel. number: (4)…………
Price per person: £12
Restaurant must have vegetarian food and a (5)…………
Menu: First course  - French Onion Soup OR Fruit Juice
          Main course - Roast Dinner           OR (6)…………
          Dessert        - Plum Pudding         OR Apple Pie
                            - Coffee
Restaurant requires from us:
(7)………… and letter of confirmation and we must (8)………… in advance.
Must confirm in writing by: (9)……………
Put notice in (10)……...…
1.
London Arms choose menu / decide menu / decide on menu / select menu / choose the menu / decide the menu / decide on the menu / select the menu Rajdoot November 4 / the fourth of November / the 4th of November / 4th November / November 4th / 4th Nov / Nov 4th / 4 Nov / Nov 4 208657 Park View / Park View Hotel Newsletter / the Newsletter fifty pound deposit / fifty pounds deposit / £50 deposit / deposit £50 / deposit of £50 / deposit fifty pound / deposit fifty pounds / deposit of fifty pound / deposit of fifty pounds no smoking section / no smoking area / non-smoking section / non-smoking area Lentil curry


(1)  
(2)  
(3)  
(4)  
(5)  
(6)  
(7)  
(8)  
(9)  
(10)  


Section 2

Script:

Woman: And next on City Life this week, we have with us in the studio Harvey Bowles, Head of the Park Arts Centre. He's here to tell us about forthcoming events at the Centre. Harvey, welcome.
Man: Hello. Thank you.
Woman: So, what can we look forward to first at the Park Centre?
Man: We've got a very exciting programme lined up for you. The next event will start on the 18th of February and run till the 24th. Times for the event? Twice each day, at 2.30 and 7.30 p.m. There'll be a folk music concert, and we're sure this is going to be very popular. A range of excellent musicians are coming, some playing for the first time in this country. And for those who want a souvenir or for people who don't manage to get to the performances, the foyer shop will be selling a CD, showcasing the great talents of the performers.
Woman: Sounds good!
Man: Yes, and then after that, our next event is starting on the 1st of March and runs for 8 days. There's a lot going on, so you'll need to look in the separate programme, which shows all the various times and so on. It also includes details of performers and ticket prices - you can pick one up from the foyer at the Centre. Yes, this year we're hosting the dance festival again, and it's going to be even bigger than last year. It's become a major feature of the arts year, and many of the performances will be recorded on video and DVD - but nothing can beat the thrill of attending the events live. We have a great range of styles, performed by over 100 groups representing as many as 4 continents. All I can say is book early, because many of the shows are going to sell out quickly.
Woman: I'm sure they will. And what do you have for us after that?
Man: Well, then things get a little quieter, but no less interesting. From the 14th to 20th March, every evening at 8, we go into cinema mode and we're showing a fine new film. I expect you've seen reviews of it - Love and Hope.
Woman: Oh yes, wonderful!
Man: Yes, and it's not just an ordinary screening. We're delighted that each screening will be introduced by a short lecture by the producer, who will also leave a little time for questions from the audience. Again, I recommend early booking for this - it's bound to be popular.
Woman: I'll be there. Anything else lined up at this point?
Man: Yes, we've got a special one-day event on April 2nd. The times aren't fixed yet, but I can tell you that we're having a singing competition.
Woman: Oh yes?
Man: There'll be a large number of entrants, and the talent should be impressive. And Channel 6 are coming, so the event is going to be shown on TV. So come and be part of the audience!
Woman: I'm sure people will want to. Well, Harvey, thank you very much for coming in and telling us all this. Details of all the events are on your website, aren't they?
Man: Yes, the address is www...

Complete the timetable below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
 
PARK ARTS CENTRE
DATES
TIMES
EVENT
NOTES
18-24 Feb
2.30pm and (1)………
Folk music concert
Can get a (2)……… in shop
1-8 March
See the (3)………
Annual (4)………
Groups from (5)………
(6)………
8pm
Film: ‘(7)………’
Talk by the (8)………
2 April
To be confirmed
(9)………
It will be (10)………
1.
producer shown on TV 4 continents 7.30 pm CD separate programme singing competition 14-20 March Love and Hope dance festival


(1)  
(2)  
(3)  
(4)  
(5)  
(6)  
(7)  
(8)  
(9)  
(10)  


Section 3

Script:

Kate: Hi, Martin.
Martin: Hi, Kate. How are you?
Kate: Fine. I'm relieved to have done my presentation!
Martin: I'm sure! How did it go?
Kate: Oh, OK in the end, but I was ever so nervous beforehand. It's silly, because I do know my stuff quite well. I must know those statistics inside out, but when you have to get each table of results to come UP in the right order, it can make you nervous. It was mv first time using the computerised projector, and I was sure I was going to get the controls wrong, or something. And of course, that's not a good situation, if you know you've got to listen to questions carefully, and be ready to answer quickly.
Martin: But it was fine once you got going?
Kate: Yes.
Martin: I do feel that the standard of presentations could be improved in general. I think a lot of the lecturers agree with me, although I don't honestly know what they can be expected to do about it. Students need to appreciate the difference between style and content. Too many presentations are just a mass of detailed content - all very worthy - without any attempt to engage people's interest. Basic things, like looking at your audience's faces, seem to get forgotten. And that makes it harder to concentrate on the points made about the research itself. Yes, there are quite a few improvements I'd like to see. Take tutorials, for example. I feel they're often a missed learnt. Week in week out, I faithfully plough through the reading list, which is fair enough, but then the discussion doesn't seem to extract the main issues. It's frustrating.
Martin: Hmm, I know what you mean. Mind you, we have to take some responsibility ourselves. I actually got quite a lot from that skills workshop I went to on taking notes, and I'd like to make similar improvements in the next semester. The reading list we get has several websites each time, and I want to learn to navigate mv wav round them more effectively.
Kate: That's sounds a good idea. Mind you, it means spending more time in the library...
Martin: If you can get in ...
Kate: You mean because it's too crowded? It isn't big enough, is it?
Well, I don't know. I mean. I like to work late in the evening, and it shuts before I want to finish. But I know you can access the catalogue from a laptop.
Kate: Which personally I haven't got. Actually, the problem for me is that I like to get up early and start work straight away and they don’t start until 9. I wish they'd change that.

Choose the correct answer.
1. Before giving her presentation, Kate was worried about
A. explaining statistical results.
B. using the projection equipment.
C. being asked difficult questions.
Explain:
2. During many presentations by students, Martin feels that
A. lecturers do not show enough interest in their students' work.
B. the student does not make enough eye contact with the audience.
C. the discussion of research methods is not detailed enough.
Explain:
3. What is Kate′s opinion of the tutorials she attends?
A. They do not have a clear focus.
B. They should be held more frequently.
C. They involve too much preparation.
Explain:
4. What does Martin intend to do next semester?
A. make better use of the internet
B. improve his note-taking skills
C. prioritise reading lists effectively
Explain:
5. What problem do Kate and Martin both have when using the library?
A. The opening hours are too short.
B. The catalogue is difficult to use.
C. There are too few desks to work at.
Explain:

Script:

Martin: Look, we ought to start working out what to do next for our project.
Kate: Yes, enough moaning!
Martin: OK, the main thing is to allocate the various tasks between us, isn't it?
Kate: Yes. Well, we're going to need the Questionnaire before we can do much else, aren't we? Do you want to handle that?
Martin: I'd assumed we'd do it together?
Kate: You have more experience than me. Maybe you could think UP the main questions, you know, a first version of the whole thing, and then I could read it through.
Martin: And make suggestions? Well. OK. My experience on projects has all been with closed groups. I don't really know how you go about selecting subjects from larger populations.
Kate: Actually, it’s quite straightforward. You use tables of randomised numbers.
Martin: Could you show me?
Kate: Yeah. I'll take you through the process. That way, you'll learn, and I'll feel surer for having someone else there. Now, that brings us to the interviews themselves.
Martin: Right. Would you like to do them? Or are there too many?
Kate: Well, your typing’s pretty fast, isn't it? So, if von agree to handle the transcribing afterwards. I'm prepared to do the face-to-face stage. Does that sound fair?
Martin: It does to me. But tell me if you find it takes longer than you thought.
Kate: And vice versa! And when we get the results altogether, they'll need to be run through statistics programmes, won't they? That's where I always feel a bit unsure about which tests are the correct ones to choose.
Martin: Same here. But we can get advice from the lecturers about that. Shall we do all that as a joint effort?
Kate: I think it'd make us feel more secure about what we were doing.
Martin: Yes, it would be terrible to get that wrong after all the hard work leading up to it.
Kate: And then we've got to present the whole thing to the group. Will you feel up to doing that?
Martin: I think we should do a joint presentation. It's all both our work, after all.
Kate: I guess you're right. But would you mind getting the slides and so on ready? I find that takes me ages, and still doesn't look any good.
Martin: Whereas I quite enjoy that kind of thing. OK. Now, we need to think about...

Who will do the following tasks?
1. compose questionnaire
A. both Martin and Kate
B. Kate
C. Martin
Explain:
2. select people to interview
A. both Martin and Kate
B. Kate
C. Martin
Explain:
3. conduct interviews
A. Martin
B. both Martin and Kate
C. Kate
Explain:
4. analyse statistics
A. Martin
B. Kate
C. both Martin and Kate
Explain:
5. prepare visuals for presentation
A. both Martin and Kate
B. Martin
C. Kate
Explain:
Section 4

Script:

Good afternoon, everyone!

This is the first seminar in preparation for our archaeological fieldwork in Namibia; we are fantastically lucky to have received partial research funding for this trip from our Institute, so I shall expect 200% attention and participation from you all. First in this seminar, I’m going to give a brief introduction to contemporary research on rock art, and in the second part I’m going to give you some do’s and don’ts for our fieldwork trip in April - so please listen very carefully.
 
I’m first going to focus on the interpretation of rock art in Namibia. We are very fortunate to be going to an area where you can find some of the most important sites in the entire world. And I hope to show you how easy it is for everyone to make mistakes in looking at cultures which are different from our own - the first and most important lesson we have to learn.
 
In Namibia there are both paintings and engravings - that’s where the surface of the rock is cut out. Many of the engravings show footprints of animals and most scholars used to think that the purpose of these was simple and obvious: this rock art was like a school book with pictures to teach children about tracks: which track belonged to which animal - giraffe, lion and so on.
 
But there were some mysteries. First, when you look at a typical Namibian painting or engraving, you see the tracks are repeated, there are dozens of tracks for the same animal. You’d expect just one clear illustration if the reason - the aim - was to teach tracking.
 
Now there were two more problems. Why are some of the engravings of animals very accurate as you’d expect - all clearly identifiable - and others quite unrealistic?
 
And another mystery - some of these unrealistic animals - that’s in the engravings - seem to be half human. Some, for example, have got human faces. Many researchers now think that these were pictures the wise men engraved of themselves. They believed they could use magic to control the animals they had drawn, so the hunters could then catch them for food.
 
This shows you some of the dangers of coming from one culture to another, as we’ll be doing, without understanding it fully. Scholars imagined that children looked at rock art pictures to learn to track - just because they themselves had learnt skills from pictures; many researchers now believe that rock art had a much more complex purpose. And we’ll talk more about it next week!

Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
 
SEMINAR ON ROCK ART
Preparation for fieldwork trip to Namibia in (1)………
Rock art in Namibia may be
   - paintings
   - engravings
Earliest explanation of engravings of animal footprints
They were used to help (2) ………learn about tracking
But:
* Why are the tracks usually (3) ………?
* Why are some engravings realistic and others unrealistic?
* Why are the unrealistic animals sometimes half (4) ………?
More recent explanation:
Wise men may have been trying to control wild animals with (5) ………
Comment:
Earlier explanation was due to scholars over-generalising from their experience of a different culture.
1.
magic children human repeated April


(1)  
(2)  
(3)  
(4)  
(5)  


Script:

Now before I invite you to join in a discussion in this second part of the seminar, I’d like to make some very important points about our fieldwork - and in fact any field trip to look at rock art.

 
We’re going to a number of sites, and we won’t always be together. The single largest problem faced by people who manage the sites is - yes, I’m sure you’ve guessed - damage caused by visitors, even though it’s usually unintentional.
 
Whenever you do go to a site, don’t forget you can learn many things from observing at a distance instead of walking all over it. This can really help to reduce visitor pressure. People often say, ‘Well, there’s only two of us and just this one time’, but maybe thousands of people are saying the same thing.
 
And then some basic rules to guide you - we’ll have our own camp near a village, but remember never to camp on a site if you go on your own. It may be disrespectful to the people of that culture, and certainly don’t make fires, however romantic it may seem. It’s really dangerous in dry areas, and you can easily burn priceless undiscovered material by doing so.
 
So, how are we going to enjoy the rock art on our field trip? By looking at it, drawing it and photographing it - NEVER by touching it or even tracing it. Rock art is fragile and precious.
 
Remember that climbing on rocks and in caves can destroy in a moment what has lasted for centuries. So no heroics in Namibia, please! Try to be extra careful and help others to be too.
 
And lastly please don’t even move rocks or branches to take photographs - you should leave the site intact - I’m sure I can rely on you to do that.
 
Well, that’s about all I want to say before today’s first discussion, but if you have any questions please ask them now - and don’t forget you’ll find some fascinating information about world-wide sites on the Internet. Right, first question then?

Complete the sentences below.
Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.
1.
distance intact touching fire/ fires culture


- If you look at a site from a   you reduce visitor pressure.

- To camp on a site may be disrespectful to people from that  .

- Undiscovered material may be damaged by  .

- You should avoid   or tracing rock art as it is so fragile.

- In general, your aim is to leave the site  .


Passage 1

Unlikely Boomtowns: The World’s Hottest Cities

 
Megacities like London, New York and Tokyo loom large in our imaginations. They are still associated with fortune, fame and the future. They can dominate national economies and politics. The last fifty years has been their era, as the number of cities with more than ten million people grew from two to twenty. But with all respect to the science-fiction novelists who have envisioned a future of urban giants, their day is over. The typical growth rate of the population within a megacity has slowed from more than eight per cent in the 1980s to less than half that over the last five years, and numbers are expected to be static in the next quarter century. Instead, the coming years will belong to a smaller, far humbler relation - the Second City.
 
Within a few years, more people will live in cities than in the countryside for the first time in human history. But increasingly, the urban core itself is downsizing. Already, half the city dwellers in the world live in metropolises with fewer than half-a-million residents. Second Cities - from exurbs, residential areas outside the suburbs of a town, to regional centres - are booming. Between 2000 and 2015, the world’s smallest cities (with under 500,000 people) will grow by 23 per cent, while the next smallest (one million to five million people) will grow by 27 per cent. This trend is the result of dramatic shifts, including the global real-estate bubble; increasing international migration; cheaper transport; new technologies, and the fact that the baby-boom generation is reaching retirement age.
 
The emergence of Second Cities has flowed naturally (if unexpectedly) from the earlier success of the megacities. In the 1990s, megacities boomed as global markets did. This was particularly true in areas with high-tech or ‘knowledge-based’ industries like finance. Bonuses got bigger, bankers got richer and real-estate prices in the world’s most sought-after cities soared. The result has been the creation of what demographer William Frey of the Washington-based Brookings Institute calls ‘gated regions’ in which both the city and many of the surrounding suburbs have become unaffordable for all but the very wealthy. ‘Economically, after a city reaches a certain size its productivity starts to fall,’ notes Mario Pezzini, head of the regional-competitiveness division of the OECD. He puts the tipping point at about six million people, after which costs, travel times and the occasional chaos ‘create a situation in which the centre of the city may be a great place, but only for the rich, and the outlying areas become harder to live and work in’.
 
One reaction to this phenomenon is further sprawl - high prices in the urban core and traditional suburbs drive people to distant exurbs with extreme commutes into big cities. As Frey notes, in the major US metropolitan areas, average commuting times have doubled over the last fifteen years.
Why does one town become a booming Second City while another fails? The answer hinges on whether a community has the wherewithal to exploit the forces pushing people and businesses out of the megacities. One key is excellent transport links, especially to the biggest commercial centres. Though barely a decade old, Goyang is South Korea’s fastest-growing city in part because it is 30 minutes by subway from Seoul.
 
Another growth driver for Second Cities is the decentralization of work, driven in large part by new technologies. While more financial deals are done now in big capitals like New York and London than ever before, it is also clear that plenty of booming service industries are leaving for ‘Rising Urban Stars’ like Dubai, Montpellier and Cape Town. These places have not only improved their Internet backbones, but often have technical institutes and universities that turn out the kinds of talent that populate growth industries.
 
Consider Montpellier, France, a case study in urban decentralization. Until the 1980s, it was like a big Mediterranean village, but one with a strong university, many lovely villas and an IBM manufacturing base. Once the high-speed train lines were built, Parisians began pouring in for weekend breaks. Some bought houses, creating a critical mass of middle-class professionals who began taking advantage of flexible working systems to do three days in Paris, and two down South, where things seemed less pressured. Soon, big companies began looking at the area; a number of medical-technology and electronics firms came to town, and IBM put more investment into service businesses there. To cater to the incoming professionals, the city began building amenities: an opera house, a tram line to discourage cars in the city centre. The result, says French urban-planning expert Nacima Baron, is that ‘the city is now full of cosmopolitan business people. It’s a new society’.
 
All this means that Second Cities won’t stay small. Indeed some countries are actively promoting their growth. Italy, for example, is trying to create tourist hubs of towns close to each other with distinctive buildings and offering different yet complementary cultural activities. Devolution of policymaking power is leaving many lesser cities more free than ever to shape their destinies. To them all: this is your era. Don’t blow it.


 

Choose THREE answer choices.


1. Which THREE of the following statements are true of megacities, according to the text?
A. They reached their peak in the second half of the twentieth century.
B. 50 per cent of the world's inhabitants now live in them.
C. They tend to lead the way in terms of fashion.
D. It is no longer automatically advantageous to base a company there.
E. Their success begins to work against them at a certain stage.
F. Their population has ceased to expand.
G. They grew rich on the profits from manufacturing industry.
Explain:


2. The list below gives some possible reasons why small towns can turn into successful Second Cities. Which THREE of these reasons are mentioned by the writer of the text?
A. the ability to attract financial companies
B. the creation of efficient access routes
C. the existence of support services for foreign workers
D. the maintenance of a special local atmosphere
E. the provision of cheap housing for older people
F. the willingness to imitate international-style architecture
G. the expertise to keep up with electronic developments
Explain:

Choose the correct answer.


1. Why was the fence built?
A. to stop the dingoes from being slaughtered by farmers
B. to separate the sheep from the cattle
C. to act as a boundary between properties
D. to protect the Australian wool industry
Explain:


2. On what point do the conservationists and politicians agree?
A. The fence poses a threat to the environment.
B. Wool exports are vital to the economy.
C. The fence acts as a useful frontier between states.
D. The number of dogs needs to be reduced.
Explain:


3. Why did the author visit Australia?
A. to investigate how the fence was constructed
B. to study Australian farming methods
C. because he wanted to learn more about the wool industry
D. because he was interested in life around the fence
Explain:


4. How does the author feel about the fence?
A. impressed
B. annoyed
C. delighted
D. shocked
Explain:


5. When did the authorities first acknowledge the dingo problem?
A. 1960
B. 1830
C. 1788
D. 1845
Explain:


6. How do the park officials feel about the fence?
A. pleased
B. philosophical
C. proud
D. angry
Explain:

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
YES    if the statement agrees with the information
NO      if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this in the passage

1. The fence serves a different purpose in each state.
A. YES
B. NO
C. NOT GIVEN
Explain:


2. The fence is only partially successful.
A. YES
B. NO
C. NOT GIVEN
Explain:


3. The dingo is indigenous to Australia.
A. NO
B. YES
C. NOT GIVEN
Explain:


4. Dingoes have flourished as a result of the sheep industry.
A. NO
B. YES
C. NOT GIVEN
Explain:


5. Dingoes are known to attack humans.
A. YES
B. NO
C. NOT GIVEN
Explain:


6. Kangaroos have increased in number because of the fence.
A. NOT GIVEN
B. NO
C. YES
Explain:


7. The author does not agree with the culling of kangaroos.
A. NOT GIVEN
B. NO
C. YES
Explain:

Complete the summary using the list of words in the table below.

 

 

urban centres

finance companies

flexible

service industries

capital

high-speed train

jobs

medical-technology

professionals

middle-age

overtime

university

unskilled workers

amenities

tram line

infrastructure

European Union

cosmopolitan

 

Urban Decentralisation

 


1.
high-speed train amenities university capital service industries professionals flexible


It is becoming increasingly obvious that large numbers of   are giving up their expensive premises in the megacities and relocating to smaller cities like Montpellier. One of the attractions of Montpellier is the presence of a good   that can provide them with the necessary skilled workforce.
Another important factor for Montpellier was the arrival of visitors from the  . The introduction of the   meant that increasing numbers were able to come for short stays.
Of these, a significant proportion decided to get a base in the city. The city council soon realised that they needed to provide appropriate   for their new inhabitants. In fact, the   among them liked the more relaxed lifestyle so much that they took advantage of any   arrangements offered by their firms to spend more of the week in Montpellier.


Passage 2
MAKING EVERY DROP COUNT

 

 
(A) The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources. As towns gradually expanded, water was brought from increasingly remote sources, leading to sophisticated engineering efforts such as dams and aqueducts. At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.
 
(B) During the industrial revolution and population explosion of the 19th and 20th centuries, the demand for water rose dramatically. Unprecedented construction of tens of thousands of monumental engineering projects designed to control floods, protect clean water supplies, and provide water for irrigation and hydropower brought great benefits to hundreds of millions of people. Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food. Nearly one fifth of all the electricity generated worldwide is produced by turbines spun by the power of falling water.
 
(C) Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.
 
(D) The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes - often with little warning or compensation - to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20 % of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers (underground stores of water) are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.
 
(E) At the outset of the new millennium, however, the way resource planners think about water is beginning to change. The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority - ensuring ‘some for all,’ instead of ‘more for some’. Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities, which is increasingly considered the option of last, not first, resort. This shift in philosophy has not been universally accepted, and it comes with strong opposition from some established water organisations. Nevertheless, it may be the only way to address successfully the pressing problems of providing everyone with clean water to drink, adequate water to grow food and a life free from preventable water-related illness.
 
(F) Fortunately - and unexpectedly - the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted. As a result, the pressure to build new water infrastructures has diminished over the past two decades. Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed. And in a few parts of the world, demand has actually fallen.
 
(G) What explains this remarkable turn of events? Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use. Throughout the first three-quarters of the 20th century, the quantity of freshwater consumed per person doubled on average; in the USA, water withdrawals increased tenfold while the population quadrupled. But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreased, thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. In 1965, for instance, Japan used approximately 13 million gallons of water to produce $1 million of commercial output; by 1989 this had dropped to 3.5 million gallons (even accounting for inflation) - almost a quadrupling of water productivity. In the USA, water withdrawals have fallen by more than 20% from their peak in 1980.
 
(H) On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.

 


Choose the correct headings for paragraphs A-H.

1. Paragraph A
A. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
B. The relevance to health
C. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
D. A description of ancient water supplies
E. An explanation for reduced water use
F. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
G. The need to raise standards
H. Environmental effects
I. Scientists call for a revision of policy
G. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
K. How a global challenge was met
Explain:


2. Paragraph B
A. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
B. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
C. Environmental effects
D. A description of ancient water supplies
E. How a global challenge was met
F. The relevance to health
G. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
H. The need to raise standards
I. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
G. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
K. An explanation for reduced water use
Explain:


3. Paragraph C
A. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
B. How a global challenge was met
C. The relevance to health
D. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
E. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
F. Environmental effects
G. A description of ancient water supplies
H. An explanation for reduced water use
I. The need to raise standards
G. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
K. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
Explain:


4. Paragraph D
A. Environmental effects
B. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
C. A description of ancient water supplies
D. An explanation for reduced water use
E. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
F. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
G. How a global challenge was met
H. The need to raise standards
I. The relevance to health
G. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
K. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
Explain:


5. Paragraph E
A. Environmental effects
B. The need to raise standards
C. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
D. How a global challenge was met
E. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
F. The relevance to health
G. A description of ancient water supplies
H. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
I. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
G. An explanation for reduced water use
K. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
Explain:


6. Paragraph F
A. Environmental effects
B. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
C. The relevance to health
D. How a global challenge was met
E. Scientists call for a revision of policy
F. The need to raise standards
G. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
H. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
I. An explanation for reduced water use
G. A description of ancient water supplies
K. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
Explain:


7. Paragraph G
A. The need to raise standards
B. The relevance to health
C. An explanation for reduced water use
D. A description of ancient water supplies
E. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
F. How a global challenge was met
G. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
H. Environmental effects
I. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
G. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
K. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
Explain:


8. Paragraph H
A. Irrigation systems fall into disuse
B. Addressing the concern over increasing populations
C. How a global challenge was met
D. The financial cost of recent technological improvements
E. Environmental effects
F. Scientists' call for a revision of policy
G. The need to raise standards
H. A description of ancient water supplies
I. The relevance to health
G. An explanation for reduced water use
K. A surprising downward trend in demand for water
Explain:

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
YES           if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO            if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

1. Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.
A. Yes
B. No
C. Not given
Explain:


2. Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.
A. Not given
B. No
C. Yes
Explain:


3. Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
A. No
B. Yes
C. Not given
Explain:


4. Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.
A. Yes
B. Not given
C. No
Explain:


5. Modern technologies have led to a reduction in domestic water consumption.
A. Not given
B. No
C. Yes
Explain:


6. In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.
A. No
B. Not given
C. Yes
Explain:
Passage 3
THE BIRTH OF OUR MODERN MINDS
When did we begin to use symbols to communicate? Roger Highfield reports on a challenge to prevailing ideas
 
Anyone who doubts the importance of art need do no more than refer to the current account of human evolution, where the emergence of modern people is not so much marked by Stone Age technology as a creative explosion that rocked Europe 40,000 years ago. Our ancestors began to adorn their bodies with beads and pendants, even tattoos; they painted representations of animals, people and magical hybrids on cave walls in Lascaux, France and Altamira in Spain. They sculpted voluptuous stone figures, such as the Venus of Willendorf. This cultural Big Bang, which coincided with the period when modem humans reached Europe after they set out, via the Near East, from Africa, marked a decisive point in our story, when man took a critical step beyond the limitations of his hairy ancestors and began to use symbols. The modern mind was born.
 
Or was it? Britain’s leading archaeologist questions the dogma that the modern human mind originated in Europe and, instead, argues that its birth was much more recent, around 10,000 years ago, and took place in the Middle East. Lord Renfrew, professor of archaeology at Cambridge University, is troubled by what he calls the ‘sapient behaviour paradox’: genetic findings, based on the diversity of modern humans, suggest that our big brains emerged 150,000 years ago, when Homo sapiens evolved from Homo erectus, and were fully developed about 60,000 years ago. But this hardware, though necessary, was not sufficient for modern behaviour: software (culture) is also required to run a mind and for this to be honed took tens of millennia. There is something unsatisfactory about the genetic argument that rests on the ‘potential’ for change emerging, he argues. Ultimately, little happened - or at least not for another 30,000 years.
 
Although there is no doubt that genes shaped the hardware of the modern brain, genetics does not tell the whole story. ‘It is doubtful whether molecular sequences will give us any clear insights,’ said Lord Renfrew, adding that the current account of our origins has also become sidetracked by placing too much emphasis on one cultural event. Either side of the boundary between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, 40,000 years ago, people lived much the same way. To the casual observer, the archaeological record for Homo sapiens does not look much different from Homo erectus’s, or even our beetle browed European cousins, the Neanderthals. ‘There are detailed changes in tools and so on but the only one that really strikes you is cave art.’
 
And this artistic revolution was patchy: the best examples are in Spain and France. In Britain, the oldest known cave art consists of 12,000-year-old engravings in Creswell Crags. Indeed, was there an artistic revolution 40,000 years ago at all? Two pieces of ochre engraved with geometrical patterns 70,000 years ago were recently found at Blombos Cave, 180 miles east of Cape Town, South Africa. This means people were able to think abstractly and behave as modern humans much earlier than previously thought. Lord Renfrew argues that art, like genetics, does not tell the whole story of our origins. For him, the real revolution occurred 10,000 years ago with the first permanent villages. That is when the effects of new software kicked in, allowing our ancestors to work together in a more settled way. That is when plants and animals were domesticated and agriculture born.
 
‘First there were nests of skulls and unusual burial practices, cult centres and shrines. Then you have the first villages, the first towns, like Jericho in Jordan (around 8000 BC) and Catalhoyuk in Turkey (est 6500 BC), then the spread of farming to Europe. Before long, you are accelerating towards the first cities in Mesopotamia, and then other civilisations in Mexico, China and beyond.’
 
Living in timber and mud brick houses led to a very different engagement between our ancestors and the material world. ‘I don’t think it was until settled village communities developed that you had the concept of property, or that “I own these things that have been handed down to me”.’ This in turn could have introduced the need for mathematics, to keep a tally of possessions, and written language to describe them. In the Near East, primitive counters date back to the early farming period and this could have marked the first stages of writing, said Lord Renfrew. ‘We have not solved anything about the origins of modern humans until we understand what happened 10,000 years ago,’ he said. He is excited by excavations now under way in Anatolia, a potential birthplace of the modern mind, in Catalhoyuk, one of the earliest places where close- knit communities were born, and Gobekli Tepe, a shrine that predates village life. These spiritual sites may have seeded the first human settled communities by encouraging the domestication of plants and animals. 

Classify the following statements as referring to the period

1. The brain was completely formed physically but was not capable of all the functions of the modem mind.
A. 60,000 years ago
B. 40,000 years ago
C. 60,000 years ago
D. 70,000 years ago
E. 10,000 years ago
Explain:


2. There was a major change in the attitude of humans to each other.
A. 60,000 years ago
B. 10,000 years ago
C. 40,000 years ago
D. 70,000 years ago
E. 60,000 years ago
Explain:


3. A huge amount of art in different forms began to appear.
A. 40,000 years ago
B. 60,000 years ago
C. 70,000 years ago
D. 10,000 years ago
Explain:


4. Development; of the human mind occurred at the same time as a migration.
A. 70,000 years ago
B. 60,000 years ago
C. 10,000 years ago
D. 40,000 years ago
Explain:


5. Art from the period casts doubt on the conventional view of the development of the human mind.
A. 70,000 years ago
B. 40,000 years ago
C. 10,000 years ago
D. 60,000 years ago
Explain:


6. The modem mind developed in a different location from the one normally assumed.
A. 60,000 years ago
B. 70,000 years ago
C. 40,000 years ago
D. 10,000 years ago
Explain:


7. The only significant change in the development of man is shown in the art produced.
A. 60,000 years ago
B. 40,000 years ago
C. 10,000 years ago
D. 70,000 years ago
Explain:


8. Further research into the period is essential for accurate conclusions to be drawn on human development.
A. 40,000 years ago
B. 60,000 years ago
C. 10,000 years ago
D. 60,000 years ago
E. 70,000 years ago
Explain:

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

1.
permanent villages and agriculture/ agriculture and permanent villages tools Stone Age technology engravings mathematics and written language/ written language and mathematics genetics/ genetic


According to the current view, what does NOT indicate the first appearance of the modem human?  

What type of evidence does Lord Renfrew question in general?  

What, apart from art, were the developments in the creation of 40,000 years ago?  

What kind of cave art in Britain is referred to?  

What TWO things does Lord Renfrew believe to have been established 10,000 years ago? (using “and” to list)  

What TWO things did the notion of personal possessions lead to? (using “and” to list)  


Score: 0/10
No.DateRight ScoreTotal Score
 
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