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IELTS Reading - Multiple Choice

 
Objective: IELTS reading multiple choice and skimming and scanning practice.
You won't have time in the reading test to carefully read the whole passage all of the way through, so you need to find the answers in the text quickly.
This lesson shows you how skimming and scanning can help with this.
 
Identifying the question type
Before you start any reading pasage, you should firstly take a look at the question stems to get an idea of what you may need to look out for.
So now look at the IELTS reading multiple choice questions below this reading.
If you look at the question stems, you will see that names are often mentioned e.g.James Alan Fox, John J. DiIulio, Michael Tonry. So this immediately tells you it is a good idea to underline 'names' as you read the text.
You will then be able to quickly scan the text later to find where the answers are.
Looking at the question stems first also gives you an idea of what the reading is about.
 
Underline / highlight key words
As you read the text, you should get into the habit of highlighting words that you think may be important and will help you find answers later.
These are often nouns like names, dates, numbers or any other key words that stand out as a key topic of that paragraph.
Looking at the IELTS reading multiple choice questions quickly first may help with this.
 
IELTS Reading Multiple Choice Questions
This type of question follows the order of the text. So when you have found one answer, you know that the next one will be below, and probably not too far away.
When you start looking at the questions, you should underline key words in the question stem to help you find the answers in the text.
Look at the IELTS reading multiple choice questions again - as you will see, key words have been highlighted. You can use these to help you scan the text to find the answers more quickly.
 
Reading in detail
When you read the text for the first time, you should focus on the topic sentences, and skim the rest of the paragraph.
But once you start answering the IELTS reading multiple choice questions and you have found where the answer is, you will need to read the text carefully in order to identify the correct choice.
Tip: Do not think that just because you have found some words in the multiple choices (a, b or c) that match the words in the text that this must be the right answer.
It's usually not that simple so you must read the section where you think the answer is carefully.



Greenhouse gases arise from a wide range of sources and their increasing concentration is largely related to the compound effects of increased population,  improved living standards and changes in lifestyle. From a current base of 5 billion, the United Nations predicts that the global population may stabilise in the twenty-first century between 8 and 14 billion, with more than 90 per cent of the projected increase taking place in the world’s developing nations. The associated activities to support that growth, particularly to produce the required energy and food, will cause further increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge, therefore, is to attain a sustainable balance between population, economic growth and the environment.
 
The major greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the only major contributor to the greenhouse effect that does not occur naturally, coming from such sources as refrigeration, plastics and manufacture. Coal’s total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is thought to be about 18 per cent, with about half of this coming from electricity generation.
 
The worldwide coal industry allocates extensive resources to researching and developing new technologies and ways of capturing greenhouse gases. Efficiencies are likely to be improved dramatically, and hence CO2 emissions reduced, through combustion and gasification techniques which are now at pilot and demonstration stages.
 
Clean coal is another avenue for improving fuel conversion efficiency. Investigations are under way into super-clean coal (35 per cent ash) and ultraclean coal (less than 1 per cent ash). Super-clean coal has the potential to enhance the combustion efficiency of conventional pulverised fuel power plants. Ultraclean coal will enable coal to be used in advanced power systems such as coal-fired gas turbines which, when operated in combined cycle, have the potential to achieve much greater efficiencies.
 
Defendants of mining point out that, environmentally, coal mining has two important factors in its favour. It makes only temporary use of the land and produces no toxic chemical wastes. By carefully preplanning projects, implementing pollution control measures, monitoring the effects of mining and rehabilitating mined areas, the coal industry minimises the impact on the neighbouring community, the immediate environment and long-term land capability.
 
Dust levels are controlled by spraying roads and stockpiles, and water pollution is controlled by carefully separating clean water runoff from runoff which contains sediments or salt from mine workings. The latter is treated and reused for dust suppression. Noise is controlled by modifying equipment and by using insulation and sound enclosures around machinery.
 
Since mining activities represent only a temporary use of the land, extensive rehabilitation measures are adopted to ensure that land capability after mining meets agreed and appropriate standards which, in some cases, are superior to the land’s pre-mining condition. Where the mining is underground, the surface area can be simultaneously used for forests, cattle grazing and crop raising, or even reservoirs and urban development, with little or no disruption to the existing land use. In all cases, mining is subject to stringent controls and approvals processes.


1. The global increase in greenhouse gases has been attributed to ................
A. industrial pollution in developing countries.
B. coal mining and electricity generation.
C. trends in population and lifestyle.
D. reduced rainfall in many parts of the world.
Explain:


2. The proportion of all greenhouse gases created by coal is approximately ................
A. 14 per cent.
B. 18 per cent.
C. 27 per cent.
D. 90 per cent.
Explain:


3. Current research aims to increase the energy-producing efficiency of coal by ................
A. extracting CO2 from it.
B. recycling greenhouse gases.
C. burning it at a lower temperature.
D. developing new gasification techniques.
Explain:


4. Compared with ordinary coal, new, ‘clean′ coals may generate power ................
A. more cleanly but much more slowly.
B. more cleanly but at higher cost.
C. more cleanly and more efficiently.
D. more cleanly but less efficiently.
Explain:


5. To control dust at mine sites, mining companies often use ................
A. topsoil taken from the site before mining.
B. runoff water containing sediments.
C. fresh water from nearby dams.
D. chemicals which may be toxic.
Explain:


6. The most suitable title for the text is ................
A. Pollution control in coal mining
B. Sustainable population growth
C. The greenhouse effect
D. The coal industry and the environment
Explain:
Total: 10 page(s)
Score: 0/10
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